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Archive | Middle East/Caucasus

Qeshm Island – Iran’s most southern point

You wonder where that place is? An island off Iran’s southern coastline, in the strait of Hormuz. On a clear day you may even see the northern tip of Oman. A very dry place with lots of hidden gems: deep canyons, the most bizarre rock formations and stunning beaches. The culture on this 150km long island is so very different from the rest of Iran. The vast majority of its people are Sunnites, darker skinned than most Iranians and the general feel is more of an Arab country. The lack of large urban centers gives it a rather traditional rural appeal that on the other hand is very relaxed.  Quesm Island is also the perfect hub for visiting smaller, nearby islands like Hormuz or Hengam.

Chahkooh Canyon


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South Ossetia – wild and isolated

South Ossetia is mountainous, isolated and home to only 55.000 people. The drive from Vladikavkaz/North Ossetia to Tshivali, the tiny capital of this tiny county, was long but scenic. A smooth road meanders along the bottom of a narrow steep gorge, all covered with trees that come in all shades of green. But the real highlight of the trip is passing through the Roki Tunnel connecting Russia and South Ossetia.


South Ossetia – scenic countryside

The country is formally independent from Russia, but only by four countries recognize it as such: among those is, surprise, surprise RUSSIA, along with Syria, Venezuela, Naura and Nicaragua. But people in North Ossetia actually see South Ossetia’s independence as a joke, since it is financed by Moscow, uses the Rubel as a currency, and its citizens have a Russian passport. Russians, unlike foreigners, travel freely between the two Ossetias, whereas I needed a multiple visa since I left the Russian Republic of North Ossetia for South Ossetia and returned three days later. Visitors need an invitation. This was also the reason why I join a super small group put together through Lupine Travel.  They also took care of the paper work.

South Ossetia is formally independent but financed by Russia

The Roki Tunnel – connecting North and South Ossetia

The only way to reach South Ossetia is from North Ossetia/Russia, there are no other options, since entering from Georgia is impossible due to the political situation. This route that is open all year, before the 3,6km long Roki Tunnel was opened in 1885, the only way to cross the Caucasus mountains was over the Ruki Pass at 3000m sea level, naturally this was not possible from November till end of April

Roki Tunnel – connecting South Ossetia und Russia

The procedure at the Russian side is tedious, the soldiers tell you where you stand and where to wait. Questions need to be answered about how long you plan to stay and why you travel there, the whole process is very old Soviet style.

On the South Ossetian side it is very relaxed. A few containers sit next to the road, through a small office window we pushed our passport and waited. While doing so we listened again and again to the same five words of German from a former soldier who was stationed in East Germany. He and his buddies thought that this was hilarious.

My lady travel campagnions, waiting at the border

Tshivali – a sleepy capital

Tshivalil is the home of 35.000 people, the quiet streets are shaded by large trees and what immediately caught my attention were the grapevines in front of many houses. They provide shade and are a cozy place to rest. They also reminded me very much of the area in Austria where I grew up, the Wachau. Beside this promised good wine.

Houses shaded by grapevine

Center of Tshivali, South Ossetia’s tiny capital

We checked into the only hotel that exits, it is brand-new Uyaat. It is a bit of a walk into the center. 135 Oktyabrskaya St., +7 929 808 66 93 (WhatsApp), (23-69 US). It seemed we were the first guest to stay in these rooms. We learned that a small group with Lupine Travel visited in 2018 and they had to stays with locals. A super large hotels was under construction right next to Vinzenzo in August 2019 when I visited.

Our little group of five was welcome by the Minister of Tourism and his wife who did the translating for the entire three days. Of course more people joined, drivers, friends: since tourists are rare they did not want to miss the opportunity.

Our little group plus the who is who of Tshivali

Everybody bent backwards to make us feel welcome and comfortable. Food and local wine kept coming, the place to eat in Tshivali is the trendy Vincenzo that serves Italian and Japanese food.

Locals sitting outside the houses

Houses in Tshivali are often shaded by grapevine

South Ossetia National Museum 

The local museum was our first stop, an excellent guide with endless knowledge about the history and traditions of the area explained every item in great detail. I was completely exhausted after three hours. What impressed me most were the large paintings, some by Ossetia’s most revered artist, Costa Khetagurov.

that taught us about the sometimes rough local traditions. A thief was punished by being thrown over a cliff. At least one relative had to take part to avoid family disputes in the future. Feuds between clans were generally feared: one painting showed a man sucking a women’s breast in the presence of a large group of men, if she accepts him as „her son“, the problem is solved. Avalanches were a common danger, to detect the victims a certain instrument mandolin-like was played.

Painting in National Museum – showing to use of the Instrument to detect victims


National Museum – the Instrument used to detect people buried under avalanches

Reminders of Georgia attacking in 2008

The conflict with Georgia is given great room in the museum, photos of war heroes and the destruction inflicted on buildings and infrastructure, real ammunition and explicit language reveal that the pain and emotions are very present among South Ossetians. No wonder, every adult, even teenagers can remember those days.  The damage inflicted during the attack in 2008 war is still clearly visible and the country is only slowly recovering. In August 2008 Georgia shelled South Ossetia’s capital Tskhinvali as part of a military campaign to regain control of South Ossetia. This was the climax of a struggle that started in the 90s when South Ossetia first tried to cut ties with Georgia.

Photos taken in the National Museum


Items displayed in the National Museum reminding of the attack

What led to this Conflict? Under the Soviet Union, South Ossetia was an autonomous region of its Georgian republic. In the late 1980s and early 1990s the Soviet Union was undermined by strong nationalist feelings among its various peoples, and the South Ossetians moved closer to their North Ossetian neighbours. The Georgian government overruled this and tried to establish full Georgian control over South Ossetia. The first full-scale war between Ossetian separatists and the Georgian national government started in early 1991 and lasted until 1992. After that war, South Ossetia was effectively independent.. Georgia’s Rose Revolution of 2003 established a government keen to regain the lost control over South Ossetia. Georgia’s attack in 2008 back-fired grandly when the Russian army poured through the Roki Tunnel and overran much of Georgia. Since “liberating” the region, the Russian government has tried to merge it with Russia, but neither Georgia nor the South Ossetians themselves favor this.

Houses destroyed when Georgia attacked in 2008

The walk through the quite center soon brought forth the tragic consequences of South Ossetia’s most recent tragic history, lots of destroyed houses, facades pock-marked by bullets and artillery.

Houses destroyed when Georgia attacked in 2008

Although South Ossetian speaks the same language and are of the same ethnicity as their neighbors across the Caucasus feelings are tense between the two Ossetias. North Ossetian police complain that South Ossetians cause major problems, participating in the illegal arms trade, racketeering, robberies and other crimes. North Ossetia also has hosted large groups of refugees from South Ossetia in the past two decades.

Facades in Tshivali still who the Trabes of war

Leaving the city towards the western we passed a truly the gruesome monument known as the “Museum of Burnt Souls”. On a flat piece of land rusty burned out cars are arranged in a circle, most of them riddled with bullets. They remind of a group of civilians, who burnt to death in their cars when thy tried to flee from the violence on August 9th 2008. What they thought was the only safe road leaving Tshinval, came under attack by Georgian militia who fired howitzers at the convoy.

Museum of Burnt Souls – refugees trying to flee from Tskivali came under attack by Georgian militia and burned in their cars



Museum of Burnt Souls – refugees trying to flee from Tshivali came under attack by Georgian militia and burned in their cars

Armenian and Jewish

In Tshivali a few churches are worthwhile visiting, like the Church of the Holy Virgin in the former Armenian Quarter.



A true highlight was visiting  the former and now deserted synagogue which used to be the center of the then Jewish quarter. The walk there was really pleasant, passing through quiet alleys line with quaint houses and the omnipresent grapevines. When we got to the synagogue it was closed, neighbors sitting outside got the person with the key. The weed in front of the door to the temple was waste highand the inside of the place dusty.

Neighbor opening  the deserted synagague in Tshivali

The Star of David painting on the ceiling is peeling off, but with a bit of imagination I pictured a vibrant Jewish community with a history that is over 2500 years old. Most Jews left during the first war with Georgia and the rest in 2008.

Prayer-room of old synagogue in Tshivali


Ancient fortresses and monasteries on former trade routes

Up in the hills is a monastery, like in most monasteries wine was produced till grape production was wiped out due to disease in the 19th century. Nowadays red (chinuri) and white wine is grown in South Ossetia.

Also in the hills is an Armenian Church dating from the 12th century, which became a Georgian monastery in the 16th century.

Armenian church dating back to the 12th century

In former times mighty fortresses controlled this trade route through the Caucasus, now only ruins remind of their glorious past. One had a kind of tower that I climbed to get a good view of the area.

Climbing the tower of a former fortress


Once mighty fortresses that controlled trade routes

The Kheit Burning Spring

It was already pitch-dark when we left some ruins in the hills, wondering why we were not heading toward back home to Tsivali. Nobody was able to explain what place could possibly be visited in such darkness. Soon we were told to leave the cars and we all gathered around a hole in the ground.  It was a mineral spring in the ruined village of Kheit on the left bank of the Great Liakhvi River. Like many other springs in South Ossetia, it is carbonated and the composition of local gas is such that it can burn directly in the water. Just bring the lighter to the spring to set it on fire.

Burning spring -local gas is such that it can burn directly in the water.

Another outing took us to a friend of our hosts, who decided to live in a remote datcha on his own. He hunts, keeps bees, chops his wood and we got to eat bear meat. His wife brings whatever else his needs during reguläre visits.

Home of local hermit who lives on his datcha


Munching bear meat while visiting a hunter

The scenery during the trip was spectacular. After a short rain  clouds hung so low it felt like touching them.

South Ossetian countryside after the rain


I found this tiny grenouille in the grass after the rain


Eryngium Amethystinum

Driving back to the Russian border we passed small memorial and tanks.  It seems South Ossetia is expecting further troubles.

Small memorial in the countryside

Tanks on the road back to Russia/North Ossetia

While waiting at the border to re-enter Russia I discovered something really useful. Russians are very practical it seems. Their rolls of toilette paper don’t waste space for  hole as we know it and serve all kind of purposes, like keeping a window open.

Do you notice the difference to toilet papier as you know it?


Re-entering Russia after a three day trip to South Ossetia



North Ossetia – Birthplace of Mystical Alania

Snow-capped mountains, deep gorges, popular shrines of traditional Ossetian religion, ancient watch tower, Dargvas, the city of dead and the most pleasant capital Vladikavkaz. Yes, rattling off all of North Ossetia’s wonders leaves you breathless, like the natural beauty of this Russian Republic. The place breathes history. Starting with the Alans, ancient warriors of the Caucasus region to World War II, when the Germany attempt to grab the oilfields of the Caucasus region was stopped right there.


Ossetian countryside with an ancient watchtower, so typical for the Caucasus region

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Lebanon – Biblical Land, crossroads of civilizations and party zone

Lebanon once shaded by ancient Cedars trees breathes history. Every civilization from the Phoenicians to the French left their mark on the country, its culture and cuisine. In this blog entry I will give an overview of my ten day trip to Lebanon in October 2018 and a shorter trip in April 2019 when on my way to Syria. I was based in Beirut and did day trips to all the places describes in details in each link. Those who still think of Lebanon as a war torn country: the Civil War ended in 1990. Not one tiny second did I feel unsafe, not matter where I went.


Mosque, church and Roman ruins in the center of Beirut

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Damaskus – cradle of civilization

A trip to Lebanon instigated another trip to neighboring Syria in 2019. From the ancient city of Damascus we travelled by public bus to Homs and Aleppo, the two cities that were most affected by the war and where it is still most visible. The Aramaic speaking village Mallula was equally effected, but had received so much support from Christians in Lebanon that hardly any destruction was noticeable.

Umayyad Mosque in Damascus one of the oldest mosques in the world built 715 AD

Why Syria in 2019- two year after the war had ended?

The seed for the trip to Syria was planted in Anjar/Libanon, once a stronghold of the Umayyad Dynasty that expanded Islam all the way to Spain. Even 1200 years later, I could sense the elegance and grace of the buildings, I was struck, deeply touched. It was a completely peaceful moment, I was the only person around, complete silence. Syria was behind a small hill bordering this archeological sight. This very moment I knew I had to visit the Umayyad Mosque in Damaskus, build by the same Caliphs, visit an one of the cradles of civilizations.

Anjar/Libanon, once a stronghold of the Umayyad Dynasty

In Beirut I met Syrians who studied, worked there or were waiting for their visa for European countries. Syria moved in on me, it became very close, not the country marked in red, too dangerous for travelling. The war had ended the year before, most Europeans were not even aware of that.

I also started wandering what kind of picture Western media portrays of such countries. It was not the first time, during each of my trips to Africa I asked myself the same question. In Sudan once people begged me to tell my families and friends back home that they are not fanatics and terrorists, but just wanted to live in peace, like everybody else.

How do travel to Syria

Right after returning from Libanon in November 2018, I started reading blogs of people who had just travelled to Syria. There weren’t many, but their stories confirmed my impression. One of the blogs got me in touch with three guys who also planned on going to Syria soon. Actually, I prefer travelling by myself, because I always meet fun people, but I was not sure whether this would be the case in Syria, a year after the war had ended.

The blog recommended an agency that issued the invitation needed to pick up your visa at the border. This is not cheap, plus you have travel with a guide. This was a new rule, after a German tourist had behaved like an idiot and try to reach Idlib. Transferring the money became a nightmare for some of us, since the transfer got stopped and we didn’t know where the money was. Eventually all went well. I would recommend paying in US dollars once you arrive.

In Beirut I met my fellow travelers (all in all we were 6 different nationalities), a driver took us across the border to Damascus, where we met our guide.

At the border we got our visa stamped into our passport, which was another 120 US and an hour later we were in Damascus, which was lucky to escape any fights.

Changing money after arriving in Syria

6 travellers – 6 different nationalities

The National Museum

The national Museum in Damascus had just reopened in April 2019, not all Parts were open, only the Classic section, but what we saw was breathtaking.
Apart from the human toll that the war in Syria took, the property destroyed, the drama happening in Palmyra captivated the world. Helplessly the world had to watch the barbaric destruction of Syria’s cultural heritage by ISIS. The Allat Temple was one of them, in 2013. Its gate was once adorned by the Allat Lion. After the liberation of Palmyra, what was left of the Allat Lion, was brought to Damascus and put together with the help of Polish archeologists. Now it sits in the garden of the reopened National Museum. I was lucky to meet one of the persons who was involved in the rescue and renovation. I must admit it was an extremely touching moment to see goodness prevails over destruction. Even from very close the Allat Lion looks unscathed.

The Allat Temple in Palmyra was destroyed by IS in 2013. Its gate was once adorned by the Allat Lion. Polish scientist Assembled the piepes in Damascus and now it Sitz in the Garden of the National Museum. 

National Museum -it had just reopened in 2019














Priceless archelogical treasure in National Museum



5000 years old Byblos and nearby Jeita Grotto

Many places on this globe claim to be the oldest, but Byblos truly is!  Byblos has been continuously inhabited for 5000 years. Theoretically only half an hour north of Beirut  and with Jeita Grotto and Lady of the Lebanon nearby makes it Lebanon’s most touristic sight. Byblos has been influenced and controlled by many civilizations,  the Phoenicians, the Egyptians, The Assyrians, the Persians, Alexander the Great, the Romans.

Bylos- Lebanon

Bylos- Lebanon, oldest city in the world, inhabited for 5000 years

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Quadish Valley – Christian Territory

The Quadish Valley is Christian territory,  many houses are marked by simple crosses and gigantic churches dominate the landscape. But the real highlights are the scenery, the monasteries hewn into step cliffs and the lovely mountain village of Bcharré. Byblos, the oldest town in the world and spectacular Jeita Grotto are sights on the way.

Quadish Valley – Christian territory with Village of Bcharré on top

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Beirut – The Paris of the Middle East

For many the country is still associated with Hezbollah and Lebanon’s Civil War, even 20 Years after it ended.  What I found was a land of stunning archeological sites, amazing scenery and the best food ever. Every possible civilization that passed through the Middle East has left its traces. I travelled the country alone in October 2018 and not for one tiny second did I feel unsafe. Just the opposite, the Lebanese bend backwards to make you feel welcome. The glamorous days may have passed but the bar and restaurant scene in the districts of Hamra and Gemmayze are as cool and bohemian as in todays Paris.

Mohammad Al-Amin Mosque  right next to Maronite Cathedral of Saint George, so very symbolic for Beirut and Lebanon

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